Also means pain, sorrow, dissatisfaction, conflict or illness.  A fundamental concept in Buddhism, which the Buddha has realized and proclaimed, together with impermanence and no-self, as the three characteristics of worldly phenomena. The Buddha says that suffering is as immense as the sea, and his motivation for teaching is to free all sentient beings from the sea of suffering.  The Four Noble Truths sermon deals with suffering, the cause of suffering, cessation of suffering and the path to cease suffering, which is the Noble Eightfold Path.

P: dukkha, S: duḥkha, V: khổ

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